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Gravity of Nickel

The specific gravity of nickel given by the early observers was determined on more or less impure samples. The reduced nickel may also appear as a more or less compact sponge with numerous voids or pores, and hence A. K. Huntington and W. G. McMillan stated that the data may often be misleading. T. Bergman reported 9.00. R. Tupputi gave for the metal which had been reduced from the oxide by carbon and then melted, 8.38 at 12.5°; R. J. Hauy, and H. Schroder gave 8.9. The metal reduced by carbon monoxide was found by J. B. Richter to have a sp. gr. of 8.279; and C. D. Tourte gave 8.402 at 12.5°; whilst for the metal reduced by hydrogen, C. F. Rammelsberg gave 8.975 to 9.261; S. Bottone, 8.279 at 15.5°; and L. Playfair and J. P. Joule, 7.803 to 7.861. C. Brunner found 8.637; M. J. Brisson, 7.807; A. Arndtsen, 8.88 at 4°; L. Thompson, 8.575; C. H. Lees, 8.80 for 99 per cent, nickel; D. F. McFarland and O. E. Harder, 8.69; R. Bottger, 8.477 to 8.713; W. F. Barrett, 8.3; H. Tomlinson, 8.707 for hard-drawn, and 8.739 for annealed nickel wire; L. Thompson, 8.575 for the purified metal; C. Winkler, 7.5185 at 20°; O. Bloch, and W. A. Tilden, 8.790 at 21°/4°; and R. von Dallwitz-Wegner, 8.90; W. von Selve, 8.6 to 8.9 for the rolled metal; P. D. Merica, 8.70 to 8.90 for malleable or electrolytic nickel, and 7.7 to 8.0 for spongy nickel or nickel powder. J. A. Fleming found the sp. gr. of annealed electrolytic nickel to be 8.96 at 18°. L. Mond and co-workers found that nickel powder reduced by hydrogen from nickel oxide obtained from nickel deposited by the carbonyl process, has a sp. gr. 8.2834 at 15.4°, and 8.2928 at 15.1°. D. H. Browne and J. F. Thompson found samples of commercial nickel with a sp. gr. ranging from 7.993 to 8.873; and samples of malleable nickel ranging from 8.71 to 8.90 - average, 8.84. P. D. Merica and co-workers gave 8.85±0.03 for the sp. gr. of commercial, 99.2 per cent, nickel. H. Copaux gave 8-8 for the metal at 15°/4°, and this may be taken to be the best representative value. R. Tupputi gave 8.820 for the sp. gr. of the rolled metal, at 12.5°, and 8.380 for the cast metal; analogous results - respectively 8.666 and 8.279 - were obtained by J. B. Richter; respectively, 8.932 and 8.402, by C. D. Tourte; respectively, 8.8404 and 8.8209, by W. Schlett; respectively, 8.9 and 8.85, by M. Maclean; and, respectively, 8.8 and 8.3, at 15°/4°, by H. Copaux. G. W. A. Kahlbaum and E. Sturm found that the cold-drawn wire had, at 20°/4°, a sp. gr. 8.7599, and when annealed, 8.8439; similarly, with wire twisted in the cold, the sp. gr. Was 8.8273, and when annealed, 8.8412; T. Ueda also studied the effects of torsion. T. M. Lowry and R. G. Parker gave 8.8583 for the metal in bulk and 8.299 for the cold-worked metal (filings). E. L. Peffer found the sp. gr. of cast nickel – 99.94 per cent. Ni - to be 8.907 at 23°; that of a cold swaged rod 0.225 in. diam., 8.901 at 25°; and that of the annealed rod, 8.902 at 25°. A coarsely crystalline ingot which had received no mechanical work had a sp. gr. 8.907, and when reduced by cold-work, either annealed or not annealed, 8.90. The results were discussed by F. C. A. H. Lantsberry, and C. B. Hollabaugh and W. P. Davey. R. G. Kennedy calculated from the lattice parameters the sp. gr. 8.917; G. L. Clark, 8.1; Z. Jeffries and R. S. Archer, 8.8; and L. W. McKeehan, 8.953. R. A. Hadfield gave 8.839 for ordinary cast nickel and 8.826 for forged nickel. S. Kaya found the sp. gr. of single crystals exceeded that of the polycrystals by 0.110 per cent. K. Honda and co-workers gave 2.06 per cent, for the expansion which occurs with the solidification of nickel with 2.2 per cent, of carbon. C. Benedicks and coworkers found the specific volume of nickel is 0.1258 at 1422°, and 0.1288 at 1500°; and J. A. Groshans, and E. Donath and J. Mayrhofer made observations on the sp. vol. of nickel; and T. W. Richards gave 6.7 for the atomic volume. W. Biltz and K. Meisel calculated 557.26 for the at. vol. at absolute zero. W. L. Bragg gave for the atomic radius 1.35 Å. G. Natta and L. Passerini found that if the at. radius of oxygen is 1.32 Å., that of nickel is 0.77 Å. Observations were made by A. Kapustinsky, A. Ferrari and F. Giorgi, Y. M. Goldschmidt, E. H. Westling, G. G. Grimm, J. C. Slater, E. Herlinger, E. J. Cuy, G. Natta and L. Passerini, W. P. Davey, L. Pauling, and E. T. Wherry, from which it follows that for tervalent nickel atoms, the effective radius is 0.35 Å.; for bivalent atoms, 0.69 to 0.78; and for neutral atoms, 1.24 to 1.39 Å. M. L. Huggins gave 1.59 to 1.77; A. Kapustinsky studied the effect of solvation on the ionic radius. J. A. M. van Liempt discussed the atomic constants of nickel; and P. Vinassa, the molecular number.

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