Chemical elements
  Nickel
    History
    Occurrence
    Isotopes
    Energy
    Production
    Preparation
    Application
    Catalyst
    Physical Properties
      Gravity
      Hardness
      Mechanical Properties
      Compressibility
      Plastic Flow
      Coefficient of Expansion
      Thermal Conductivity
      Molten Nickel
      Magnetic Power
      Thermal Properties
      Index of Refraction
      Radiation Energy
      Spectrum
      Absorption Spectra
      X-ray Spectrum
      Emission of Electrons
      Photoelectric Effect
      Ionization Potentials
      Conductivity
      Conductivity of Crystal Nickel
      Voltaluminescence
      Contact Potential
      Electrochemical Series
      Electrode Potential
      Over-voltages
      Salts Solutions
      Electrodeposition
      Nickel-Iron Accumulator
      Thermoelectric Force
      Peltier effect
      Thomson effect
    Compounds
    PDB 1a5n-1g2a
    PDB 1g3v-1mn0
    PDB 1mro-1s9b
    PDB 1scr-1xmk
    PDB 1xu1-2cg5
    PDB 2cqz-2jih
    PDB 2jk8-2v4b
    PDB 2vbq-3c2q
    PDB 3c6c-3h85
    PDB 3hdp-3kvb
    PDB 3l1m-3o00
    PDB 3o01-4ubp
    PDB 8icl-9ant

Molten Nickel






J. B. Richter, and R. Tupputi said that nickel is as easily melted as is manganese; O. L. Erdmann, that it is as easily melted as cast-iron; and L. Thompson, that it is more easily melted than cobalt and iron. The oxidation of the metal while molten was discussed by C. L. Winkler, I. Wharton, and C. W. Siemens and A. K. Huntington; R. Ruer and K. Kaneko found that molten nickel dissolves the oxide, the f.p. is accordingly lowered, and the metal rendered brittle. L. Pebal discussed the ready union of the molten metal with carbon. R. C. Smith found that filings of the metal sintered at 650°, and the precipitated metal at 700°. A. Schertel gave 1392° to 1420° for the melting point of nickel; R. Pictet gave 1450°. P. H. van der Weyde, and T. Carnelley somehow got wide of the mark, for they gave 1600° for the m.p. of the metal. H. le Chatelier gave 1420°; H. Copaux, 1470°; E. M. Terry, and O. Ruff and W. Bormann, 1452°; Gr. K. Burgess and R. Gr. Waltenberg, 1452°; A. L. Day and R. B. Sosman, 1452.3°; L. Holborn and W. Wein, 1484°; Gr. Petrenko, and M. Levin, 1484°; A. G. C. Gwyer, W. Guertler and G. Tammann, N. Konstantinoff, K. Losseff, H. Giebelhausen, A. D. Dourdine, and G. Voss, 1451°; K. Friedrich, 1484°; N. Baar, 1456°; S. F. Schemtschuschny and co-workers, 1484°; G. K. Burgess, 1435° for 99-95 per cent, nickel; C. G. Fink and F. A. Rohrman, 1458°; H. C. Cross, 1455°; and L. Jordan and W. H. Swanger, and H. T. Wensel and W. F. Roeser, 1455° for the m.p. or f.p. of 99-94 per cent, nickel. W. Guertler and M. Pirani, and L. I. Dana and P. D. Foote gave 1452° for the best representative value. T. Carnelley discussed the relation between the m.p. and the coeff. of thermal expansion; and K. Honda and H. Masumoto, and G. A. Tomlinson, the relation between the m.p. and the interatomic forces; W. Crossley, the relation between the at. vol. and the m.p.; A. Stein, the relation between the resistance and the m.p.; R. Forrer, the relation between the m.p. and the lattice structure; and J. A. M. van Liempt and J. A. de Vriend, the time of melting thin fuses.

W. Crookes estimated the volatility of nickel to be 10.99 when that of gold is 100; W. N. Hartley observed that nickel is volatile in the oxy-hydrogen flame; and H. Moissan showed that nickel distils in the electric furnace more readily than cobalt. 150 grms. were distilled in 5 min., in an electric arc furnace, and 200 grms. in 9 min. O. Ruff and W. Bormann gave 2340° for the boiling point of nickel under 30 mm. press. W. R. Mott estimated the b.p. to be 2700°; H. A. Jones and co-workers, 3377°; and R. W. Millar calculated 3075° at 760 mm., 2950° at 500 mm., 2560° at 100 mm., and 1840° at 1 mm. press. H. A. Jones and co-workers calculated the b.p. to be 3377°. O. Ruff and co-workers said that an alloy saturated with carbon begins to boil at about 12,500°. R. W. Millar represented the vapour pressure, p mm., of molten nickel by logp = -1.448 logT – 18340T-1+13.451. H. A. Jones and co-workers calculated values for the rate of evaporation, m, of nickel filaments, log10m = 40.218/4.577 – (85100+400)/4.577T – (0.971/4.577) log10T – 0.00206T/4.577 – 4340/4.577×1725; and for the vap. press., p, log10p = 40.218/4.577 + 3.475 – (4340+400)/4.577×1725 – (0.971 – 0.5) log10T – 0.00206T/4.577; or

T° K. 500°1000°1500°2000°2600°3000°3650°
p1.62×10-201.34×10-72.94×10-12.9×1022.4×1041.6×1051.0×106


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