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The impurities in commercial nickel

Formerly, coarse nickel might contain 60 to 90 per cent, of nickel, but to-day the metal is extracted from a variety of ores and it contains 98 to 99 per cent, of nickel. The most common impurities are cobalt, copper, iron, zinc, sulphur, arsenic, silicon, carbon, and magnesium, whilst lead, antimony, manganese, and aluminium may be present. Commercial nickel appears on the market as (a) grains, cubes, rondelles, or powder reduced at a relatively low temp, from nickel oxide, and not fused in the process; (b) nickel deposited in concentric layers from nickel carbonyl and not fused in the process; (c) nickel deposited electrolytically as cathode sheets; (d) nickel made by reducing the oxide above the m.p. of the metal, and casting it, without deoxidation, in the form of blocks; or pouring it into water, when it appears in the form of shot; (e) malleable nickel prepared by reduction from the oxide above the m.p. of the metal, and mixed with some deoxidizer before it is poured or teemed into ingots or manufactured into rods, sheet, strip, wire, tubes, etc.

The Klefva nickel also contained 0.9 to 2.0 per cent, of Na; and the two other samples were reported to contain respectively 0.06 to 1.6 and Oto 0.8 per cent, of residue insoluble in acids. Analyses were reported by R. Fresenius, W. E. Gard, C. E. Guillaume, R. A. Hadfield, F. Heusler, A. Hollard, A. Hollard and L. Bertiaux, J. H. James and J. M. Nissen, A. Julien, A. Kobrich, J. L. Lassaigne, P. D. Merica, L. Moissenet, H. Nissenson and A. Mittasch, J. J. Pohl, P. Reiman, W. von Selve, S. P. L. Sorensen, L. Thompson, and P. Weselsky.

From the reports of D. H. Browne and J. F. Thompson, the Report of the Royal Ontario Nickel Commission, and the Circular of the Bureau of Standards. The subject was discussed by F. Mylius, who showed that technical nickel can be obtained with only 0.029 per cent, of impurities. The presence of cobalt as an impurity was discussed by R. J. McKay, and W. R. Barclay. The " ingots " had 0.015 per cent. As and 0.015 per cent. Sn and Sb; and the " sheet" 1.32 per cent, of manganese. The " impurities " have not been determined in all cases. In somecases the reported Ni includes both cobalt and nickel. No particular conclusion as to the relative merits of samples from different localities is to be drawn from these data. Another table could have been just as easily compiled to show another order of merit. The data are to be taken as a whole, showing what may be expected from modern commercial nickel. Vessels for melting nickel were studied by L. Jordan and co-workers, and are discussed in connection with iron.
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