Chemical elements
    Physical Properties
    PDB 1a5n-1g2a
    PDB 1g3v-1mn0
    PDB 1mro-1s9b
    PDB 1scr-1xmk
    PDB 1xu1-2cg5
    PDB 2cqz-2jih
    PDB 2jk8-2v4b
    PDB 2vbq-3c2q
    PDB 3c6c-3h85
    PDB 3hdp-3kvb
    PDB 3l1m-3o00
    PDB 3o01-4ubp
    PDB 8icl-9ant

The Occurrence of Nickel

According to K. Kraut, and T. Carnelley, nickel is much more widely distributed in nature tlian was formerly supposed, it is closely allied to cobalt, and the two elements are almost always associated with one another and with iron. According to V. M. Goldschmidt, during the cooling and solidification of the earth, the molten mass separated into three layers - a metallic layer, a sulphide layer, and a silicate layer - vide iron. The occurrence of the two metals cobalt and nickel in association with iron was supposed to form the central core of the earth, and, from the analogy with meteoric iron, it is possible that the iron in the central core contains 6 to 10 per cent, of nickel, and that the proportion of nickel and cobalt is approximately as 15:1. The terrestrial minerals awaruite and josephinite represent native nickel. The cobalt and nickel in the sulphide layer, (Fe, Ni, Co)S, amount to 1 to 4 per cent. Nickel is thus a primary constituent of many sulphides, arsenides, antimonides, and tellurides. Nickel has been frequently detected in igneous rocks, and F. W. Clarke noticed that nickel is specially characteristic of magnesian igneous rocks, where it is generally associated in them with chromium. Nickel also occurs primarily in silicate rocks. P. Pondal observed that the proportion of nickel in basic rocks is greater than in acidic rocks, where the proportion is low or zero; in. fifteen samples of Galician magmas, he found 0.0 to 0.42 per cent, of NiO. The subject was discussed by J. H. L. Vogt.

According to F. W. Clarke, nickel is distributed more abundantly than copper, for whilst the igneous rocks of the earth's crust contain approximately 4.56 of iron to 0.02 of nickel, the proportion of copper is about 0.010, and the proportion of the common metals, zinc and lead, is still less. According to F. W. Clarke and H. S. Washington, the relative abundance of nickel in the igneous rocks of the earth's crust is 0.020 when that of cobalt is 0.001, and that of iron is 5.01 per cent. J. H. L. Vogt gave 0.005 per cent, for nickel; W. Vernadsky gave 0.01; G. Berg, 0.018 per cent.; and F. W. Clarke, 0.0274 per cent, of oxide. W. and J. Noddack and O. Berg gave 3×l0-5 for the absolute abundance of nickel when that of cobalt is 3×l0-6 and that of iron, l0-2. A. E. Fersmann calculated 0.0029 for the percentage number of atoms of nickel in the earth's crust. The general subject was discussed by K. Kraut, E. Dittler, G. Berg, P. Niggli, G. Tammann, E. Herlinger, O. Hahn, W. Lindgren, J. Joly, and A. von Antropoff.

According to A. Terreil, the metal occurs associated with the magnetic platinum ores of Nischne-Tagilsk, Urals; whilst T. Petersen found it in the magnetic iron of Pregattin, Tyrols; A. Sella, alloyed with 26.6 per cent, of iron in the sands of Elvo, Piemont; and R. A. A. Johnston, in the sands of Yukon. Some native alloys of iron and nickel have received special names - awaruite, FeNi2, observed by W. Skey in Awarua Bay, New Zealand; josephinite, Fe2Ni5, by W. H. Melville, in the placer sands of Josephine and Jackson Counties, Oregon, and by G. S. Jamieson, in the sands of Smith River, California; souesite, FeNi3, by G. C. Hoffmann, in the sands of Frazer River, British Columbia; octibbehite, Fe2Ni3, by W. J. Taylor in Octibbeha, Missouri; and catharinite, Fe2Ni, by S. Meunier, from Santa Catharina, Brazil - vide infra, the iron-nickel alloys. E. Casoria, and G. Paris observed nickel amongst the products of the Vesuvian eruption of 1906. The occurrence of extra terrestrial nickel in meteorites is discussed in connection with the iron-nickel alloys, and in connection with extra terrestrial iron. The first definite proof of the presence of nickel in meteorites was made in 1799 by J. L. Proust. G. Berg, and E. Herlinger gave 1.53 per cent, for the average nickel content of stony meteorites, and 8.51 per cent, for iron meteorites. G. P. Merrill estimated that the analyses of meteorites published up to 1916 showed that meteorites contained 1.15 per cent, of metallic nickel, and 0.48 per cent, of oxide - eruptive terrestrial rocks contained 0.025 per cent, of nickel oxide. J. and W. Noddack's estimates of the percentage atomic distribution relative to oxygen unity are:

Earth's crust – 1.8×10-4
Igneous rocks – 2.01×10-3
Meteoric iron – 8.46×10-3
Troilite – 2.88×10-2
Atomic distribution – 4.2×10-2

The subject was discussed by H. von Kluber, O. C. Farrington, F. Behrend and

G. Berg, G. P. Merrill, J. and W. Noddack, W. Crookes, etc. - vide iron. G. Kirchoff, A. J. Angstrom, A. Cornu, and J. N. Lockyer obtained spectroscopic evidence of the existence of nickel in the sun. Confirmatory observations were made by A. Cornu, H. A. Rowland, H. von Kluber, F. Behrend and G. Berg, H. N. Russell, M. Vernon, S. A. Mitchell, F. McClean, G. E. Hale and W. S. Adams, and A. de Gramont. A. Albrecht observed nickel lines in the spectrum of Germinorum; and H. M. Pillans, in that of jS-Lyrse. The occurrence of nickel lines in stellar spectra was discussed bv H. von Kluber, C. J. Kreiger, W. W. Morgan and G. Farns- worth, O. Struve and P. Swings, G. P. Merrill, J. Stebbins, W. C. Rufus, G. E. Hale and co-workers, C. D. Shane, F. J. M. Stratton, and J. Storey. F. S. Hogg reported the spectral lines of nickel in comets.

Nickel ores

Native nickel occurs in nature alloyed with iron in meteorites, and in a few terrestrial minerals, but the native element is a curiosity of no industrial importance. Workable deposits of nickel are rare; the most important deposits occur in Ontario, Canada, and in New Caledonia. These deposits control the world's market for the metal. The useful ores of nickel furnish three classes:
  1. Sulphides - e.g., pentlandite, polydymite, linnseite, and millerite. The sulphide ores accompanying pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite are always associated with a subsilicic rock like norite, peridotite, and sometimes diabase or diorite. The ores are usually at or near the margin of laccoliths, and are partly massive metal sulphides, and partly disseminated in the marginal zone of the rock. The Sudbury, Ontario, deposits, for example, occur in an enormous laccolith which occupies the interior of a basin-like depression, and it is overlaid with a considerable thickness of sedimentary and pyroclastic rocks. Two main theories have been proposed to explain the origin of the Sudbury deposits: (a) the igneous or magmatic segregation theory assumes that the nickel, copper, and iron sulphides cooled and segregated from a molten state like the igneous rocks; and (b) the hydrodeposition theory assumes that the ores have been deposited from hot aqueous solutions circulating along zones of crushing and faulting. The theory that the Sudbury ores were produced by molten injections which solidified in the fissures as veins, etc., is favoured by R. Bell, J. W. Gregory, C. F. Tolman and A. F. Rogers, J. F. Kemp, J. H. L. Vogt, W. Campbell and C. W. Knight, D. C. Davies, H. B. von Foullon, T. L. Walker, A. P. Coleman, A. E. Barlow, etc. D. H. Browne observed that in the cooling of a copper-nickel matte, the copper sulphides favour the margins of the mass, and the nickel sulphides concentrate near the centre, and the sulphides at Sudbury are similarly distributed. In the alternative theory advocated by K. Beck, W. G. Miller, C. W. Dickson, and W. Campbell and C. W. Knight, it is assumed that the ores were formed by the circulation of heated waters containing a soln. of the components of nickel, copper, and iron sulphides, and, to a minor extent, lime, magnesia, silica, etc. The nickel, copper, and iron sulphides were then precipitated as pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite. E. Weinschenk considered that the nickeliferous pyrrhotites of southern Schwarzwald are not magmatic. Synthetic experiments show that these minerals may be formed by both dry and wet processes. The origin of nickel ores was also discussed by A. M. Bateman, E. E. Bush, S. St. Clair, F. W. Clarke and C. Catlett, J. H. Collins, W. H. Collins, M. A. Dresser, J. Gamier, W. H. Goodchild, H. M. Eoberts and D. Longyear, L. P. Silver, and T. L. Walker.
  2. Arsenides - e.g., niccolite and chloanthite. F. Gillman considered the niccolite deposits in the serpentine of Malaga, Spain, to be magmatic. The arsenide ores of Cobalt, Ontario, occur in narrow veins cutting metamorphosed, fragmental, pre-Cambrian rocks which have been intruded by a high mass of dolerite. The vein also contains barytes, fluorspar, dolomite, and quartz, all typical of minerals deposited from aq. soln. W. G. Miller considered that the mineralization was produced by magmatic waters which accompanied or followed the dolerite eruption. W. Voit considered that the arsenide ore of Dobschau, Hungary, was deposited from circulating soln. The arsenides occur in a carbonate gangue at or near contacts of diorite. C. E. Keyes discussed metasomatic replacements in limestone; and the oxidation or carbonation of sulphides and arsenides of nickel and cobalt was discussed by J. F. Kemp, F. Gillman, etc.
  3. Hydrated silicates - e.g., garnierite, genthite, connarite, and nepouite - found in New Caledonia; Riddles, Oregon; North Carolina; Eevda, Urals; Frankenstein, Silesia; and Mount Avala, Serbia. These silicates have a more or less indefinite composition. They occur in weathered zones of basic igneous rocks - e.g., peridotites - and are frequently altered to serpentine in which the contained nickel is considered to have been a primary constituent. In some cases, during the weathering, the nickel minerals were dissolved and deposited from soln. in shrinkage cracks and seams, and in brecciated portions of the mother rock. These minerals were discussed by W. L. Austin, A. E. Barlow, H. J. Eiddle, F. W. Clarke, H. B. von Foullon, G. F. Kay, J. S. Leckie, D. Levat, W. Schornstein, A. Liversidge, E. Dittler, and F. D. Power.
Nickel occurs as an essential or accessory constituent of many minerals, but workable deposits are comparatively rare. The chief nickel minerals are as follow:

Aarite, or arite, an antimonial nickel arsenide. Alipite, an impure hydrated nickel silicate. Annabergite, Ni3(AsO4)2.8H2O. Awaruite, FeNi2. Badenite, (Co,Ni,Fe)2(As,Bi)3. Beyrichite, Ni3S4, or 2NiS.NiS2. Black nickel, vide nicomelane. Blueite, a nickeliferous pyrite approximately NiS2.12FeS2. Bravoite, a nickeliferous pyrite. Breithauptite, NiSb. Bunsenite, NiO. Cabrerite, (Ni,Mg)3(AsO4)2.8H2O. Catharinite or catarinite, Fe2Ni. Chathamite, a variety of chloanthite. Cheleutite, a nickeliferous smaltite, Chloanthite, NiAs2. Cobalt nickel pyrite, (Fe,Co,Ni)S2. Connarite, H4Ni2Si3O10. Copper nickel, vide niccolite. Corynite, a form of gersdorffite with part of the arsenic replaced by antimony. Desaulesite, a hydrated silicate of zinc and nickel associated with chloanthite. Emerald nickel, vide texasite. Folgerite, a form of pentlandite. Forbesite, (Ni,Co)HAsO4.4H2O. Garnierite, (Ni,Mg)SiO3.nH2O. Genthite, H4Mg2Ni4(SiO4)3.4H2O, or (Mg,Ni)2Si3O8.nH2O. Gersdorffite, Ni,AsS. Gunnarite, a form of pentlandite. Hauchecornite, possibly (Ni,Co)7.(S,Bi,Sb)8. Heazlewoodite, a form of pentlandite. Hengleinite, (Co,Ni,Fe)S2. Heubachite, 3(Co,Ni,Fe)2O3.4H2O. Horbachite, (Fe,Ni)2S3, or 4Fe2S3.Ni2S3. Josephinite, Fe2Ni5. Kallilite, NiBiS, or NiS2.NiBi2. Kerzinite, a peat containing nickel silicate. Kupfernickel, old name for niccolite. Lawrencite, (Fe,Ni)Cl2. Lillhammerite, pentlandite. Lindackerite, Ni3Cu6(OH)4SO4(AsO4)4.5H2O. Linnaeite, (Ni,Co)3S4. Maucherite, Ni4As3 or Ni3As2. Maufite, a silicate of nickel, aluminium, etc. Melonite, Ni2Te3. Millerite, NiS. Morenosite, NiSO4.7H2O. Nepouite, (Ni,Mg)3Si2O7.2H2O. Niccolite, NiAs. Nickel bloom, or amiabergite. Nickel glance, gersdorffite. Nickel green, or annabergite. Nickel-gymnite, a gymnite with part of the magnesium replaced by nickel as in genthite. Nickel ochre, or annabergite. Nickel smaragd, or zaratite. Nickel stibine, or ullmannite. Nickel- skutterudite, (Ni,Co,Fe)As3. Nickeline, NiAs. Nicomelane, Ni2O3. Nicopyrite, pentlandite. Noumeaite, or noumeite, a dark green form of garnierite which is usually pale green. Numite, or noumeite. Octibbehite, Fe2Ni3. Pentlandite, (Ni,Fe)S. Pimelite, an impure hydrated nickel silicate. Placodite, or plakodine, a form of maucherite. Polydymite, Ni4S5. Pyromelane, vide moresonite. Rammelsbergite, (Ni,Co,Fe)As2. Rewdanskite, (Ni,Mg,Fe)3Si2O7.2H2O. Rottisite, Ni2Si3O8.2H2O. Safflorite, (Co,Ni,Fe)As2. Saynite, a mixture of polydymite and bismutite. Smaltite, (Co,Ni,Fe)As2. Souesite, FeNi3. Spathiopyrite - safflorite. Temiskamite, Ni4As3. Texasite, 3NiO.CO2.5H2O. Transvaalite, an impure nickeliferous, arsenical, cobalt silicate. Trevorite, NiO.Fe2O3. Ullmannite, NiSbS. Villamaninite, (Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)(S,Se)2. Violarite, a copper nickel sulphide. Whartonite, a nickeliferous pyrite. White nickel, vide chloanthite. Williamite, (Ni,Co)SbS. Willyamite, (Ni,Co)S2Sb2. Winklerite, an impure cobalt, nickel arsenate. Wolfachite, Ni(As,Sb)S. Zaratite, Ni(OH)2{Ni(OH)}2CO3.4H2O.

Nickel distribution
The Geographical distribution of the Nickel Ores
The sulphide ores are represented by the pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite ores of Sudbury, and Norway. Similar ores have been mined to a relatively small extent in Pennsylvania, Tasmania, Sweden, Italy, South Africa, etc. The sulphides associated with the lead ores of south-east Missouri have also been worked for cobalt and nickel. The arsenical ores have been worked for cobalt and nickel in Saxony, Bohemia, France, and principally at Cobalt, Ontario. Silicate and oxidized ores have been worked in Greece, Madagascar, North Carolina, Oregon, and principally in New Caledonia. Before the opening of the New Caledonia mines, mines were operated in Norway, Sweden, Germany, Austria, and Italy. Norway was the largest producer up to 1877, when she was eclipsed by New Caledonia. The mine at Lancaster Gap, Pennsylvania, began to produce nickel about 1863, but it had to close down in 1891 owing to competition with the richer deposits of New Caledonia, and Sudbury. Since the advent of the New Caledonian ore in 1875, and of the Sudbury ore in 1886, other sources of supply have become relatively insignificant. Basic igneous rocks in many parts of the world contain sufficient nickel to make them of economic value, but other poorer deposits are not likely to be seriously exploited so long as the deposits like those at Sudbury are available.

The map, (See Fig), summarizes the geographical distribution of the principal deposits of nickel. There are many general reports on the occurrence of nickel ores.

Nickel ores in Europe

Nickel ores in Great Britain,

Nickel ores in Great Britain a number of deposits have been reported and in some cases worked, but to-day these deposits are of no economic value. W. Borlase, in 1758, noted the occurrence of nickel at Peengreepju Gwennap; and, according to W. G. Rum- bold, niccolite was raised at the Pengelly mine, St. Ewe. Nickel and cobalt ore was also raised from St. Austell Consols, Fowey Consols, and East Pool mines between 1854 and 1861. Other deposits in Cornwall have been reported at Dolcoath, and other mines in the Camborne and Illogan districts. Pentlandite has been found in the Wheal Jane mine, Truro; niccolite, in the South Tresavean mine; millerite, at Wheal Spavnon; and nickel, silver, copper and uranium ores as well as pyrite in the Roskrow-United mines, Ponsanooth. Millerite occurs in the clay ironstones of the South Wales Coal Measures - e.g., at Merthyr Tydfil; and nickel minerals occur associated with the iron ores at Moel Hiraddug, Cwm, Flintshire. Zaratite occurs at Warren Carr, Darley Dale, Derbyshire. Pentlandite was mined at Gille-Braghad near Inverary, in Scotland, between 1854 and 1867. There is also a deposit at Craignure near Inverary; and nickeliferous pyrrhotite occurs near Palnure Burn, Kirkcudbrightshire. The mining of niccolite at Hilderstone, Linlithgowshire, has been conducted in a desultory way between 1606 and 1873.

Nickel ores in France

In France, there are no known nickel deposits of any commercial importance. There are small deposits at Chalanches, Dauphine. These ores were first worked for silver, and the slags were afterwards treated for nickel and cobalt.

Nickel ores in Portugal

In Portugal, there are nickeliferous ores at Mirando do Corvo.

Nickel ores in Spain

In Spain, there are deposits of nickel in the serpentines of Malaga. Some garnierite in Los Jarales near Carratraca was mined for a time, but could not compete with the New Caledonian ore. There are also similar ores in the Sierra Alpujata near Ojen.

Nickel ores in Italy

In Italy, there are small unimportant deposits at Varallo in Piedmont in the Lake Maggiore district, but they have yielded little ore on a commercial scale.

Nickel ores in Switzerland

In Switzerland, nickel and cobalt ores are said to occur in the Gollyre and Grand Praz mines near Ayer, Yal d'Anniviers; and at Kaltenburg, Turtmanntal.

Nickel ores in Germany

In Germany, a few deposits of nickel are known but none is of any economic importance. There are deposits of the garnierite type near Frankenstein, Silesia; there is a deposit at Aeussert, Sohland; Steben and Lichtenberg in Bavaria; Horbach in the Black Forest; and near Dillenburg, Nassau. The once-famous cobalt deposits of Schneeberg and Annaberg have yielded small quantities of nickel.

Nickel ores in Austria

In Austria, there are mines on the Nockeberg, near Leogang, and at Mitterberg in the Salzburg Alps; the Leo lode near Salzburg and in the Kitzbiihel district in the Tyrol.

Nickel ores in Czechoslovakia

In Czechoslovakia, there are small deposits in the Joachimsthal district, and at Schluckenau in Bohemia; and at Dobschau in the Deptau mountains, formerly in Hungary.

Nickel ores in Yugoslavia

In Yugoslavia, no important nickel deposits have been discovered. Small deposits of millerite have been found in the Mount Avala lead mines; in the Zavlaka zinc-lead deposits; and at Sadyevats near Ivanjitsa.

Nickel ores in Sweden

In Sweden, small deposits occur at Klefva, Smaland; Kusa, Dalarne; and at Ruda, Ostergotland.

Nickel ores in Norway

In Norway, about 40 deposits of nickel ore are known - e.g. at Skorovas, near Trondhjem, the Lillebjeldklumpen mine near Lake Tunsjo; Flaad mine in Satersdal; the Fasco mine near Haugesund; and the Ertch mine near Ringerike.

Nickel ores in Russia

In Russia, there is a deposit of the garnierite type at Reodinsk in the Urals; in the Nijni-Karkadinsk mine, the Khudyakoosk mine, the Staro-Cheremshansk mine, and the Tunkinsk mine in the Urals.

Nickel ores in Greece

In Greece, there are nickel ores of the garnierite type, and also chromiferous iron ores containing nickel - on the islands Eubcea, and Skyros of the Greek Archipelago; the districts of Locris and Bceotia.

Nickel ores in Asia

Nickel ores in Siberia

In Siberia, north-east of Balkash land.

Nickel ores in Asiatic Turkey

In Asiatic Turkey, an occurrence of nickel ore at Kastamuni; and there is also one at Aidin.

Nickel ores in India

In India, nickeliferous pyrrhotite has been reported in various places in Rajputana; in the reefs of Kolar; and in the pyrite of the Henzada district, Burma. There are also complex sulphide ores in Tobala, South Travancore.

Nickel ores in Dutch East Indies

In Dutch East Indies, there is a deposit of nickeliferous, chromiferous iron ore on Sebuku Island off the coast of Borneo. Nickeliferous iron ore of the lateritic type has been reported north of Malili, in Celebes.

Nickel ores in China

In China, there are nickel ores south-east of Yun-nan; in the Tungehwan district; in the Red River district west of Kochiu; near Wei-ning, north-west of Kwei-chow; and in Shensi. The alloy packfong has been used for a long time in China for domestic utensils, and it was made from a nickeliferous copper ore mixed with tin, lead, and zinc.

Nickel ores in Japan

In Japan, the Natsume nickel deposits were formerly worked.

Nickel ores in Philippine Islands

In the Philippine Islands, there is chromiferous iron ore on the island of Mindanao.

Nickel ores in New Caledonia

In New Caledonia, the deposits of garnierite are of second importance to the Sudbury deposits. They were discussed by J. Gamier in 1865.

Nickel ores in Africa

the Red Sea.

Nickel ores in Abyssinia

In Abyssinia, nickel and copper ores have been found in the Walaga Province.

Nickel ores in Madagascar

In Madagascar, there are nickel ores of the garnierite type. There is one deposit at Valzoro near Amboutra, in the province of Fianarantsoa; and another deposit near Ambatondrazaka, on the Ombe River.

Nickel ores in Nyasaland

In Nyasaland, there is a deposit of nickeliferous pyrrhotite in the Blantyre district.

Nickel ores in Union of South Africa

In the Union of South Africa, there is a deposit of nickeliferous pyrrhotite at Insizwa, Cape Province; a deposit at Blauwbank, Transvaal, and at Vlakfontein in the Rustenburg district. There are also deposits at Derde Geld, Lydenburg; and near the Sheba Bridge, Barberton district.

Nickel ores in Natal

In Natal, there is an occurrence of the garnierite type in the Nkandhla district, Zululand.

Nickel ores in North America

Nickel ores in Canada

In Canada, there are numerous deposits of nickel, but only the nickeliferous pyrrhotite deposits about Ontario have been worked. The largest and richest known deposits in the world occur on the north side of Lake Huron, in the Sudbury region. The ores here are of two types - marginal deposits occur at the basal margin of the norite lying between it and the adjoining rock; and offset deposits are connected on the basic edge of the norite intrusion by dyke-like projections. There are also deposits in Dundonald near Matheson; near Shebandowan Lake; and near Nairn Centre, south of Worthington. Nickel also occurs as a minor constituent of the complex silver-cobalt ores of Cobalt, Ontario. In British Columbia, there is an occurrence on the Jordan River, Vancouver Island; in New Brunswick, at St. Stephen; in Manitoba, in the Maskwa River area, and in the Oiseau River area; and in Quebec, there are deposits in Orford, and Calumet.

Nickel ores in Newfoundland

In Newfoundland, there are sulphide ores associated with the Tilt Cove copper ores.

Nickel ores in United States

In the United States, only a few nickel deposits are known, and these are not of much economic importance. Some nickel has been obtained as a by-product from the smelting of the lead ores of Missouri. There are sulphide ores in the Fredericktown district. Nickel ores also occur in the Lancaster county, Pennsylvania; at the Key West Mine, Nevada; Piedmont region, Fauquier Co., Amherst Co., and Floyd Co., Virginia; in Jackson county, North Carolina; Riddles, South Oregon; in the Fremont county, Colorado; and near Wickenburg, Arizona. A. F. Buddington described the nickel ores of Alaska.

Nickel ores in Mexico

In Mexico, nickel-cobalt ores occur in Western Chihuahua; in the Toliman district, Queretaro; and the Esmeralds and Pilmano mines of Jalisco.

Nickel ores in Porto Rico

In Porto Rico, there is a deposit of nickeliferous ore west of Mayaguez.

Nickel ores in Cuba

In Cuba, there are nickeliferous ores in the districts of Mayari, San Felipe or Cubitas, and Moa on the north coast of the island.

Nickel ores in anto Domingo

In Santo Domingo, there is a low-grade nickel ore at the Perseverancia mine at Sierra Prieta.

Nickel ores in South America

In Brazil, nickeliferous pyrrhotite occurs near Villa de Livramento, Minas Geraes. In Chile, there is a deposit on the Pajonales, department of Copiapo, Atacama. In Peru, there is a group of nickel and cobalt ore veins in the Vilcabamba district, Cuzco. In Venezuela, there are deposits in Neuva Providencia.

Nickel ores in Australasia

In Queensland, there are no deposits of economic value. In New South Wales, small deposits of nickel have been reported from time to time. The one at Port Macquarie consists of a nickeliferous asbolite or earthy cobalt. In Tasmania, small deposits of nickeliferous pyrrhotite occur in the North Dundas district near Zeehan. Veins of garnierite occur near Trial Bay on the west coast. Other small deposits have been reported. In New Zealand, W. Skey, in 1885, reported an occurrence of a native nickel-iron alloy. It was described by G. H. F. Ulrich.

Reliable statistics for the world's production of nickel are not available. Only in the case of Canada are official returns of the ores mined and treated available, but since Canada now produces 80 to 85 per cent, of the total, a close approximation can be estimated. The New Caledonian output was considerably reduced during the Great War owing to transport difficulties, etc.

Nickel appears as an accessory constituent of many minerals. J. H. L. Vogt, and W. Schornstein discussed the occurrence of nickel in igneous and other rocks. W. N. Hartley and H. Ramage observed nickel in numerous iron ores; and it has thus been reported in aikinite by M. H. Boye, W. Gregory, and E. Hermann; in abloclastite by W. Gregory; in animikite by H. Wurtz; in antimonial fahlerz by A. Daubree; in arsenopyrite by D. Forbes, G. Tschermak, A. Frenzel, H. How, J. Rumpf, W. F. Hillebrand, A. Arzruni, and A. Guyard; in carrollite by C. L. Faber, and J. L. Smith and G. J. Brush; in chathamite by F. von Kobell; in cheleutite by L. W. McCay; in copper ores by H. Vayrynen; in chloanthite by L. W. McCay, and G. Rose; in chromite by E. Bechi; in chromopocotite by T. Petersen; in clays by L. Azema; in. cobaltiferous manganese ore by L. W. McCay, and G. la Valle; in copper pyrites by H. Bowman, and S. G. T. Bryan; in danaite and glaucodote by A. Breithaupt, D. Forbes, and G. C. Hoffmann; in domeykite by A. Weisbach; in epiboulangerite by M. Websky; in eryihrite by M. H. Boye, J. Lindaker, J. F. Vogl, T. Petersen, and G. la Valle; in fahlerz by H. Peltzer, T. Petersen, F. Sandberger, and A. Hilger; in frigidite by A. Funaro; in gabbro by D. Forbes, C. F. Naumann, and O. Kottig; in gneiss by A. W. Stelzner; J. A. Smythe, goslarite, epsornite, and melanterite; in kammererite by J. B. Pearse; in kottigite by M. H. Boye; in lavendulite by E. Goldsmith; in linnceite by T. Petersen; in lithiophorite by A. Frenzel and C. Winkler, and A. Weisbach; in limonite by F. Pisani; in magnetite by T. Petersen; in marcasite by B. Kosmann; in moresnetite by H. Risse; in nephrite by A. Kenngott; in olivine, chrysolite, and peridote by F. A. Genth, R. Beck, R. Beck and R. Hermann, W. S. von Waltershausen, A. Erdmann, L. Ricciardi and S. Speciale, H. B. von Foullon, and W. Jung; in pennite by R. Hermann; in picrolite by B. Silliman; in native platinum by S. P. de Rubies; in pyrites by T. L. Walker, W. Gregory, M. H. Boye, K. T. Liebe, J. B. Mackintosh, C. W. Dickson, F. Sandberger, H. Hahn, A. Knop, E. S. Dana and B. J. Harrington, A. Hilger and L. Mutschler, A. Streng, K. Yrba, A. Funaro, and B. Neumann; in pyrolusite by W. Gregory; in pyrrhotite by J. H. L. Vogt; in schuchardtite by A. Schrauf, and G. Starkl; S. P. de Rubies in chromite, and in native platinum; in serpentine by R. Hermann, J. L. Smith and G. J. Brush, T. S. Hunt, E. von Fellenberg, and A. Cossa; in pallasite by P. N. Tschirvinsky; in stalactitic limestone by B. Kosmann; in talc by F. Stolba, T. Scheerer and R. Richter, F. A. Genth, M. F. Heddle, and I. A. Bachman; in tectites by E. Preuss; in bismuthiferous tesserel pyrites by W. Ramsay; in tetra-hedrite by W. Gregory; in uranochalcite by R. Hermann; in wad by C. P. Williams; in wattevillite by S. Singer; and in wavellite by A. Gages. W. Baker, O. L. Erdmann, and H. Weiske observed nickel in some samples of commercial lead and iron and E. D. Campbell in American pig irons. S. P. de Rubies reported 0.1 per cent, of nickel in native platinum from Kitbim, Urals; and the subject was discussed by A. Daubree. J. Sebelien observed the presence of small proportions of nickel and cobalt in some ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian bronzes; R. A. Dart, and T. G. Trevor, 3 per cent, of nickel in an ancient bronze from the Transvaal.

Many basic igneous rocks contain small proportions of nickel. Thus:

the trapp dyke that outcrops at the Rideau canal, Ontario, has 0.612 per cent. Ni; the serpentines of Quebec contain small proportions – 0.15 to 0.26 per cent. NiO; and a peridotite (dunose) from British Columbia has 0.10 per cent. NiO. F. W. Clarke observed that the Massachusetts serpentines had 0.17 to 0.53 per cent. NiO; Connecticut - hornblende norite, 0.9 per cent.; New York - peridotite, 0.9 per cent.; Pennsylvania - pyroxenite, 0.5 per cent.; North Carolina - pyroxemite, 0.11 per cent.; Kentucky - periodotite, 0.10 per cent.; Missouri - granite, 0.20 per cent., and a porphyry, 0.15 per cent.; Texas - nepheline basalt, 0.06 per cent.; Michigan - peridotite, 0.21 per cent., and a diabase, 0.10 per cent.; Minnesota - hypersthene gabbro, 0.06 per cent., and an olivine gabbro, 0.16 per cent.; Yellowstone National Park - pyroxene-mica-diorite, 0.09 per cent., a quartz-pyroxene-mica diorite, 0.05 per cent., an allgite-andesite porphyry, 0.06 per cent., a monzonite, 0.10 per cent., a quartz-diorite porphyry, 0.19 per cent., a quartz-mica-diorite porphyry, 0.17 per cent., and a banakite dyke, 0.14 per cent.; Montana - hornblende picrite had 0.09 per cent., pyroxenite, 0.11 per cent., peridotite, 0.16 per cent., and shonkinite, 0.07 per cent.; Idaho - diorite, 0.12 per cent.; Colorado - perovskite - magnetite rock, 0.05 per cent.; Arizona - mica basalt, 0.08 per cent.; Nevada - andesitic perlite, 0.07 per cent.; California - quartz diorite, 0.05 per cent., altered peridotite, 0.09 per cent., diorite, 0.05 per cent., gabbro, 0.06 per cent., and pyroxenite, 0.11 per cent.; Oregon - peridotite, 0.10 per cent., olivine, 0.26 per cent., hypersthene - augite andesite, 0.05 per cent., and serpentine, 0.13 per cent.; and Hawaiian Islands - picritic basalt, 0.09 per cent., plagioclase basalt, 0.05 per cent., porphyritic gabbro, 0.12 per cent., olivine basalt, 0.08 per cent., and olivine, 0.34 per cent. The subject was discussed by T. G. Bonney, and C. S. Ross and E. V. Shannon.

M. Mazade, O. Henry, and H. J. Homberg observed nickel in the mineral water of Nerac, and Ronneby; and S. S. Miholic studied the subject. A. Martini observed the presence of traces of nickel in many plants. W. Vernadsky discussed the subject. J. S. McHargue also observed the occurrence of traces of nickel and cobalt in soils, plants, and animals. Nickel also occurs in coals and in peats; V. M. Goldschmidt and C. Peters found it in coals; and, according to E. de Golyer, it occurs in petroleum. G. Bertrand and M. Mokragnatz found very small proportions of nickel and cobalt occurring in most plants - vide the occurrence of cobalt. J. A. Buchner and C. G. Kaiser found nickel to be present in the ash of some gum benzoin; K. Kraut, and A. Braun, in the ash of peats and coals; and G. Tissandier, in some samples of atm. dust. A. Martini observed that nickel is a normal constituent of bones; and H. M. Fox and H. Ramage found nickel in some animal tissues. The foot of the Haliotis, for instance, had 0.004 per cent, of nickel but no cobalt. Usually the nickel is accompanied by a small proportion of cobalt.
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