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Spectrum of Nickel

Spark Spectrum of Nickel
The Spark Spectrum of Nickel.
Nickel salts furnish no distinctive flame spectrum, but J. N. Lockyer and W. C. Roberts-Austen, J. N. Lockyer, W. N. Hartley and H. W. Moss, P. G. Hartog, G. de Watteville, and H. Auerbach studied the flame spectra in the oxy-hydrogen flame; A. K. Russanoff, the spectrum in the acetylene flame; A. G. Gaydon and R. W. B. Pearse, the flame spectrum of nickel hydride, and nickel carbonyl; F. Warbel, the quantitative analysis of nickel alloys; and G. D. Liveing and J. Dewar, the spectrum obtained during gas explosions. It is possible with the aid of the electric spark to obtain the spark spectrum where the more salient lines are: 5716 in the yellow; 5477 (a, Fig.), 5156, 5143, 5115(η), 5100, 5081(β) the double δ-line 5035 and 5017, 4983(ε), and 4936 in the green; 4905, 4866, 4715(γ), 4647, and 4606 in the blue; and 4461, and 4401(ζ) in the indigo-blue. Numerous other lines are developed by stronger sparks. Observations on the spark spectrum of nickel were first made by G. Kirchhoff, and afterwards by W. A. Miller, R. Thalen, A. J. Angstrom, J. N. Lockyer, L. de Boisbaudran, J. R. Capron, G. Ciamician, J. Parry and A. E. Tucker, A. Cornu, W. N. Hartley and H. W. Moss, E. O. Hulburt, W. Kraemer, H. Nagaoka and co-workers, B. de la Roche, H. Slevogt, H. N. Russell, W. G. Duffield, F. Muller, A. G. Worthing and R. Rudy, L. and E. Bloch, A. G. Shen- stone, G. D. Liveing and J. Dewar, W. J. Humphreys, G. E. Hale and W. S. Adams, J. H. Pollock and A. G. G. Leonhard, F. McClean, J. M. Eder, J. M. Eder and E. Valenta, H. A. Rowland, J. Formanek, A. T. Globe, F. Muller, R. J. Lang, E. Demaryay, F. Exner and E. Haschek, W. E. Adeney, G. A. Hemsalech, O. Lohse, H. M. Reese, A. Hagenbach and H. Konen, H. Finger, and C. E. Gissing. A. W. Smith and M. Muskat, W. H. Fulweiler and J. Barnes, and E. O. Hulburt studied the spark spectrum in water.

The arc spectrum of nickel was examined by A. Cornu, G. D. Liveing and J. Dewar, E. Hasselberg, F. Exner and E. Haschek, L. Stiitting, H. N. Russell, J. M. Eder and E. Valenta, Lord Blythwood and W. A. Scobie, S. Hamm, R. J. Lang, S. P. de Rubies, A. Sellerio, J. Holtsmark and B. Trumpy, H. Slevogt, C. C. Kiess, H. H. Marvin and A. E. Baragar, P. Mesnage, K. Bechert and L. A. Sommer, W. G. Duffield, L. Stutting, and A. C. Menzies. The effect of pressure was studied by W. J. Humphreys, W. G. Duffield, E. G. Bilham, and B. T. Barnes; the ultimate rays, by A. de Gramont; the enhanced lines, by J. N. Lockyer, F. E. Baxandall, and H. M. Reese; self-induction, by G. A. Hemsalech, B. Huber, and P. Joye; anomalous dispersion, by G. Geisler; the effect of pressure, by B. T. Barnes; the Zeeman effect, by H. H. Marvin and A. E. Baragar, I. M. Graftdyk, W. Arkadieff, C. J. Bakker, H. M. Reese, N. A. Kent, C. Peterke, H. Nagaoka and co-workers, C. Wali-Mohammad, K. Yamada, and J. H. van Vleck and A. Frank; the Stark effect, by H. Nagaoka and Y. Sugiura, E. V. Condon, T. Takamine, and H. Lowery; H. Israel, the magnetic spectrum with short Hertzian waves, and the electrode luminescence in electrolysis, by W. von Bolton. The ultra-violet spectrum was examined by G. D. Liveing and J. Dewar, R. G. zu Dohna, A. Cornu, J. C. McLennan and A. B. McLay, R. A. Millikan and co-workers, L. and E. Bloch, R. J. Lang, V. Schumann, J. M. Eder, J. M. Eder and E. Valenta, F. Exner and E. Haschek, etc.; and the spectrum of electrically-exploded wire, by S. Smith, and R. Dechene; and the ultra-red spectrum, by H. Becquerel, H. M. Randall and E. F. Barker, W. W. Coblentz, and W. F. Meggers and C. C. Kiess. The qualitative or quantitative chemical analysis by the spectrum was investigated by A. de Gra- mont, F. Twyman and A. Harvey, J. Parry and A. E. Tucker, A. Schleicher, F. Twyman and C. S. Hitchin, C. G. Fink and F. A. Rohrman, and J. H. Pollock and A. G. G. Leonard. The absorption spectrum of the vapour was examined by J. N. Lockyer and W. C. Roberts-Austen, E. von Angerer and G. Joos, W. F. Meggers, A. T. Williams, A. L. Narayan, R. G. Loyarte and A. T. Williams, and A. T. Williams; an under-water spark spectrum, by K. Majumdar, A. L. Narayan and K. R. Rao, W. F. Meggers and F. M. Walters, M. C. W. Buffam and H. J. C. Ireton, S. P. de Rubies, A. W. Smith and M. Muskat, A. C. Menzies, R. J. Lang, A. S. King, and S. Hamm; nickel hydride, by E. Olsson; and the explosive spectrum, by H. Nagaoka and co-workers. The structure of the line spectrum was discussed by C. C. Kiess and O. Laporte, O. Laporte, J. Veldkamp, F. M. Walters, K. Bechert, W. M. Cady, W. G. Duffield, K. Bechert and co-workers, C. R. Davidson and F. J. M. Stratton, H. H. Marvin, J. E. Mack, R. A. Merrill, A. G. Shenstone, L. S. Ornstein and T. Bouma, F. Hund, H. N. Russell, M. Kimura and G. Nakamura, W. A. M. Dekkers and A. A. Kruithof, M. Sawada, A. L. Narayan and K. R. Rao, R. J. Lang, H. Purks, R. G. Loyarte andA. T. Williams, A. C. Menzies, A. L. Narayan, P. G. Nutting, L. Janicki, C. Wali-Mohammad, and J. E. Paulson, but no series spectra have been detected.
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