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Thermal Conductivity of Nickel

W. F. Barrett found the thermal conductivity of nickel to be 0.131 when that of silver is unity. L. R. Ingersoll gave 0.1428 c.g.s. units for the thermal conductivity of nickel; W. Jager and H. Diesselhorst found for Ni, 97; Co, 1.4; Mn, 1.0; Fe, 0.4; C, 0.1; and Si, 0.1, the conductivity 0.140 at 18°, 0.129 at -160°, and 0.1384 at 100°, and the temp, coeff. -0.31 per cent.; E. H. Hall gave for Ni, 85.4; Fe, 7.6; and Si, 0.4, 0.106 at 116°; and W. C. Ellis and co-workers, 0.168 cal. per cm. per sec. per degree; C. H. Lees obtained for 99 per cent, nickel, 0.129 at -160°, and 0.140 at 18°; K. Honda, 0.0833 at 30°; and H. Masumoto, 0.1821 at 30°. T. C. Baillie observed for the conductivity, k in c.g.s. units, of Ni, 97.22; Fe, 0.75; Mn, 1.68; and Mg, 0.28:


Measurements were made by M. S. van Dusen and S. M. Shelton. F. H. Schofield's values in c.g.s. units, at different temp., were:


Thermal Conductivity of Nickel
The Thermal Conductivity of Nickel
R. H. Frazier studied k/c=1.3269±0.0012, where c denotes the sp. ht. M. F. Angell gave 0.126 at 300°; 0.104 at 500°; 0.069 at 700°; 0.065 at 950°; and 0.058 at 1200°. His results, plotted in Fig., show a break in the curve near 700°. This break was not observed by K. Honda and T. Simidu, who found, for k in c.g.s. Units:


P. W. Bridgman measured the effect of pressure on the thermal conductivity and found a linear decrease of 14.1 per cent, for a press, of 12,000 kgrms. per sq. cm. The press, coeff. of the thermal conductivity is -0.0412; and in tension, under a load of 1900 kgrms. per sq. cm., the proportional change of the thermal conductivity is 0.076 per cent., or 0.0640 kgrm. per sq. cm. F. Gabler, R. Kikuchi, and M. Jakob studied the subject; and K. Dittrich, M. Jakob and S. Erk, and G. F. Sager, the application of Wiedemann and Franz's conductivity law - vide infra, nickel-copper alloys. A. Johnstone found that the thermal conductivity is raised above 0.5 per cent, by a tension of about 0.7 of the elastic limit, and the original conductivity is restored when the tension is withdrawn. G. Tammann and W. Boehme found that the thermal conductivity is decreased by cold-working the metal.

J. Dalton gave 0.10 for the specific heat of nickel, and P. L. Dulong and A. T. Petit gave 0.1035. H. V. Regnault found the sp. ht. of nickel containing some carbon to be 0.11095 between 21° and 98°; and for a sample of a higher degree of purity, 0.1108 between 12° and 97°. Another sample gave 0.10752 between 17° and 97°. W. F. Barrett gave 0.1091 for the sp. ht. of nickel; and L. R. Ingersoll, 0.1168 between 25° and 100°; W. Voigt, 0.1084 for the sp. ht. of a sample of commercial nickel; P. Schubel, 0.1086 between 18° and 100°, and 0.1254 between 18° and 600°; H. Copaux, 0.108 between 20° and 100°; W. Jager and H. Diesselhorst, 0.1065 at 18°, and 0.1159 at 100°; H. E. Schmitz, for nickel with Co, 0.9; Fe, 0.6; and Cu, 0.7, between the b.p. of liquid oxygen and 0°, 0.0826, and between 20° and 100°, 0.1094; and A. Naccari:

Sp. ht.0.10570.10900.11370.11850.12320.12790.1327

or c=0.110596+0.04946(θ - 15). W. A. Tilden obtained for nickel prepared from nickel carbonyl, and fused in hydrogen, between 15° and

c0.08380.09750.1084 0.11010.11860.12270.12400.1240 0.1246

W. H. Keesom and C. W. Clark studied the atomic heat between -271.9° and -254°. W. Schlett found between 0° and

20.86°50.41°101.37° 110.50°200°309°

or c=0.l0280+0.00004701θ. F. Wust and co-workers found that from 0° to 320° the mean sp. ht. Is 0.l0950+0.045240θ, and the true sp. ht., 0.10950+0.03148θ; between 330° and 1451° the mean sp. ht, is 0.41θ-1+0.12931+0.0611θ, and the true sp. ht., 0.12931+0.0622θ. P. N. Beck obtained:


or c=0.095451 + 0.0323θ – 0.063072θ2 between 0° and 361°; and between 376° and 800° c=0.155485-0.0312892θ+0.0615859θ2, or


A. Dumas gave for the sp. ht. of purified nickel between 17° and

98°197°266°321°366° 406°595°612°

G. Tammann and A. Rohmann gave for the heat capacity, c100 cals. per gram-atom:

-200° to -100°-100° to 0°0° to 100°100° to 200°200° to 300°300° to 400°400° to 500°

H. Schimpff gave 0.1092 for the sp. ht. between 17° and 100°, 0.0975 between 17° and -79°, and 0.0829 between 17° and -190°; U. Behn, for 98 per cent, nickel, 0.0572 at -186°, 0.0888 at -79°, 0.0934 at 0°, and 0.1053 at 18°; T. W. Richards and F. G. Jackson, 0.0869 between 19.6° and -185.6°; P. Nordmeyer and A. L. Bernoulli, 0.0918 between 20° and -185°; J. Dewar, 0.0208 between -253° and -196°; and E. Gruneisen gave cp=0.0844 between -190° and 17°; and 0.1094 between 17° and 100°. F. Simon and M. Ruhemann, E. Ahrens, N. F. Motfc, and M. S. van Dusen and S. M. Shelton studied the subject.

Specific Heat of Nickel
The Specific Heat of Nickel
W. Geiss and J. A. M. van Liempt showed that the temp, coeff. of the sp. ht. of cold-drawn nickel is 0.00505, and of nickel annealed at 1000°, 0.00636; and the sp. hts. are, respectively, 0.1035 and 0.1036, so that the difference is outside the range of measurement. M. A. Audins found that the sp. ht. of nickel is slightly increased by permanent deformation; and W. Schlett, that the sp. ht. of nickel cold-drawn from 2 mm. To 0.36 mm. is 0.1068 (sp. gr. 8.8209) when that of the annealed metal is 0.1057 (sp. gr. 8.8442). The more dense the metal, the lower sp. ht. The results are plotted in Fig. It is inferred that a rise of temp, causes molecular changes to take place which are very different from those brought about by mechanical treatment.

J. Pionchon obtained 0.10836 at 0°, 0.117292 at 200°, 0.1300 at 250°, 0.126 at 400°, 0.15759 at 350°, and 0.1665 at 1000°. He said that there are breaks in the curve at 230° and at 400°, so that he represented the sp. ht. between 0° and 230° by c=0.10836+0.044466θ, between 230° and 400° by c=0.183493+0.03564θ +0.051399998θ2, and between 400° and 1150° by c=0.099+0.046175θ. P. Weiss and co-workers found the maximum sp. ht. to be 0-1527 between 361° and 376°. They gave for the variation in the thermal capacity, Q, with temp., θ, that is, the sp. ht.:


The part of the sp. ht. due to demagnetization is estimated to be 0.025. The subject was discussed by P. Weiss, L. F. Bates, K. E. Grew, W. M. Latimer, M. Gaudino, F. Simon, and C. Schwarz. Measurements were also made by E. Horn, and C. Drucker. For A. W. Foster's observations, see the nickel-chromium alloys. H. Klinhardt found a maximum in the sp. ht. at 360° corresponding with the Curie point - vide iron - but, added W. Sucksmith and H. H. Potter, contrary to P. Weiss' theory of ferromagnetism, beyond that point the sp. ht. falls continuously and not discontinuously. S. Umino's values for the mean and true sp. ht. plotted roughly in Fig., are


Specific Heat of Nickel at Different temperatures
The Specific Heats of Nickel at Different Temperatures.
There is thus, as with other ferromagnetic metals, an abnormal change in the ferromagnetic range, Cp=6.25 + 0.001147T. The results of A. Dumas, and of J. Dorfman and R. Jaanus are summarized in Figs. Lapp observed between -175° and 460°, a rise towards the Curie point with a region between 353-5° and 360°, where the curve is discontinuous, and a paramagnetic region where the sp. ht. rises slowly.

A. Eucken and co-workers obtained for the atomic heat of recrystallized nickel at constant press, and temp., and for Debye's constant Θ - the x of 1.13, 14 - the values:

T° K15.05°18.06°40.93°82.30°123.96°168.74°185.57°204.05°

and for pressed nickel:

T° K17.70°22.30°32.25°84.90°139.32°171.76°175.23°188.51°

F. M. Jager gave 6.34 Cals. for the at. ht., Cp, of nickel at 50°; at 100°, 6.65 Cals. for Cp and 6.30 for Cv; at 365°, 7.95 Cals. for Cp and 7.13 Cals. for Cv. For β-nickel Cp is 7.30 to 7.40 Cals. up to 600°, and Cv, 6.38 to 6.18 Cals. H. A. Jones and co-workers gave for the at. ht. of nickel at a temp. T° K., Cp=4.39 + 0.00411T. The values calculated from the sp. hts. of J. Dewar, W. Jager and H. Diesselhorst, U. Behn, and J, Piochon are:

Atomic heat.1.224.305.806.246.807.368.71

I. Maydel gave for the at. ht. Cp = 8.639 – 938.9(θ+354)-1-1. W. H. Rodebush and J. C. Michalek found the values for the at. ht., Cp, of nickel at low temp, agree very closely with those for iron:


E. D. Eastman and co-workers calculated Cp – Cv=0.16 Cal. per degree per mol. F. Wust and co-workers gave 50.21θ-1+0.13380 for the mean sp. ht. of the molten metal between 1451° and 1520°, and for the true sp. ht. 0.13380. S. Umino observed no variation of the true sp. ht. of nickel with temp, after fusion. Gr. A. Tomlinson discussed the relations between the sp. ht. and the interatomic forces; A. L. Bernoulli, and A. H. Stuart, the relations between the elastic constants and the sp. ht.; and P. S. Epstein, and J. R. Ashworth, the relations between the thermal and magnetic constants.

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